Core Web Vitals: First Input Delay – What It Is and How to Improve It for SEO

“Core web vitals” is a set of core webpage functionalities that impact user experience. Google’s ranking algorithm update called page experience, which Google rolled out from June to August 2021, incorporates core web vitals as NEW ranking factors for SEO.

The current set of core web vitals includes:

  • Largest Contentful Paint (LCP)
  • First Input Delay (FID)
  • Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS)

In this article, part of our series covering the page experience update, I’ll discuss the first input delay or FID:

What Is First Input Delay (FID)?

FID measures the responsiveness of a page to user events. While technically, this could happen throughout the lifespan of a user session on a webpage, in practice, most interactivity problems occur during the initial page load. That is because this is when most resources are being downloaded, parsed, executed, and rendered.

Google discusses FID here:

First Input Delay (FID) is an important, user-centric metric for measuring load responsiveness because it quantifies the experience users feel when trying to interact with unresponsive pages—a low FID helps ensure that the page is usable. …

FID measures the time from when a user first interacts with a page (i.e., when they click a link, tap on a button, or use a custom, JavaScript-powered control) to the time when the browser is actually able to begin processing event handlers in response to that interaction.

Google cites two important reasons why the first input delay is important:

  • The first input delay will be the user’s first impression of your site’s responsiveness, and first impressions are critical in shaping our overall impression of a site’s quality and reliability.
  • The biggest interactivity issues we see on the web today occur during page load. Therefore, we believe initially focusing on improving site’s first user interaction will have the greatest impact on improving the overall interactivity of the web.

Keep in mind that FID will not apply to every situation, as Google points out here:

Not all users will interact with your site every time they visit. And not all interactions are relevant to FID … How you track, report on, and analyze FID will probably be quite a bit different from other metrics you may be used to.

How Is First Input Delay (FID) Measured?

FID measures the first impression of your site’s interactivity and responsiveness. It analyzes things like clicks, taps and key presses, which fall under the “responsiveness” category. It does not measure things like scrolling and zooming, which are related to animation.

Google recommends webpages aim for an FID of 100 milliseconds or less*, which means the page would be able to respond to an interactive event within that time frame. In order to be considered “good,” Google’s threshold should be met 75 percent of the time, segmented across mobile and desktop devices. You can learn more about how Google creates thresholds here.
*Updated threshold per Google as of 2/18/2021

FID score range from Google.
Google’s FID score

While the official threshold is 75% of page loads, Google says that for FID in particular, they “strongly recommend looking at the 95th to 99th percentiles, as those will correspond to the particularly bad first experiences users are having with your site. And it will show you the areas that need the most improvement.” This is true for both desktop and mobile users.

For developers, it’s important to understand that Google only measures the delay in event processing, not the “event processing time itself nor the time it takes the browser to update the UI after running event handlers.”

In other words, Google only measures how long the browser takes to start executing the event process. So, if you click on a link, it’s the delay between the time you click and the time the browser starts processing that click.

And when you’re ready to start improving FID, you’ll use tools that can help measure real data in the wild.

How Does First Input Delay (FID) Impact SEO?

Improving FID is another way to speed up your webpages for visitors. Consider that fast page loading was already a best practice for SEO and a ranking factor long before we heard of core web vitals. FID helps keep visitors on your site because they can interact with the content faster.

When people bounce from your site, they may never come back, and you can lose potential revenue. Not only that, but a sluggish site can also impact your rankings. That’s because Google’s AI, RankBrain, may take into account how a user engages with the search results.

Over time, if a website has enough visitors who go to the page from the search results and bounce back quickly, this could indicate they didn’t find what they were looking for. Because RankBrain’s goal is to analyze and serve the most relevant search results, rankings could suffer.

The good news is that most sites may already be OK when it comes to FID. In a study by Screaming Frog, 89% of mobile and 99% of desktop URLs fell within the threshold. The average was around 56 milliseconds on mobile and 13 milliseconds on desktop.

When looking at FID and search rankings correlation, Screaming Frog says that there’s much less of a correlation than for other core web vitals. But you need to recall that 2021 is when this becomes an important factor, and we would not expect an impact yet.

First input delay (FID) data from ScreamingFrog study.
“How Many Sites Pass the Core Web Vitals Assessment?,” Screamingfrog.co.uk

How Do I Improve My First Input Delay (FID) Score?

Google provides tools to measure FID, including:

You can also measure FID with the web-vitals JavaScript library and learn more about that here. If you are serious about improving CWV, this is the best way to get real-time feedback from actual user sessions to determine how to fix FID in the field.

The primary cause of a bad FID score is heavy JavaScript execution. So be sure to optimize how “JavaScript parses, compiles, and executes on your web page will directly reduce FID,” says Google. Reducing the amount of JavaScript and/or optimizing the running of JavaScript has always been a good idea for SEO.

If a user clicks while a JavaScript file is being processed, the browser can’t react, and the user feels blocked. If your FID score is in the red, you may need to split up your JavaScript files so the browser can go back and forth between JavaScript processing and reacting to the user.

Optimizing your JavaScript reduces page bloat, improves page performance, and provides Google with an easier path to index the correct content. That’s because Google will not have to process as much JavaScript to figure out what it needs.

In our experience, the more you can give Googlebot what it needs right away without having to process too many things, the better Google will index your site the way you think it should be indexed. Indexing is hugely important for SEO as it influences what pages Google determines are valid or not.

To optimize the FID score, Google recommends running a Lighthouse performance audit and looking at the opportunities uncovered but gives more detail on how to optimize JavaScript here.

Find out more about the update by reading our page experience series:

  1. What’s the Page Experience Update?
  2. How to Make a Mobile-Friendly Site
  3. Intrusive Interstitials & Why They’re Bad for SEO
  4. HTTPS for Users and Ranking
  5. Core Web Vitals Overview
  6. Core Web Vitals: LCP (Largest Contentful Paint)
  7. Core Web Vitals: FID (First Input Delay)
  8. Core Web Vitals: CLS (Cumulative Layout Shift)

Watch our on-demand webinar 3 Expert Tips to Improve Core Web Vitals to get more in-depth help on this timely SEO topic.

FAQ: What is the significance of First Input Delay in user experience?

First Input Delay (FID) is a pivotal metric that defines how responsive and interactive a webpage is upon user engagement. FID measures the time interval between a user’s initial interaction—such as clicking a link or tapping a button—and the browser’s ability to respond. It is, essentially, the first impression users have of a webpage’s responsiveness.

A seamless and prompt response to user input is integral to retaining visitors’ interest and ensuring their satisfaction. Users perceive a website as highly responsive when FID is minimized, leading to a positive user experience. Research indicates that user patience is limited, and even a slight delay in response can result in frustration, leading to higher bounce rates and decreased engagement.

FID’s significance extends beyond user satisfaction. Search engines, particularly Google, recognize the importance of user experience in determining search rankings. As part of its ranking algorithm, Google considers FID as a user-centric metric to gauge a website’s responsiveness. Websites that provide a smoother user experience by minimizing FID are more likely to rank higher in search results, gaining increased visibility and organic traffic.

To optimize FID, meticulous attention to website performance is crucial. Heavy JavaScript execution often contributes to delayed responses. By optimizing JavaScript code, reducing its size, and improving its execution efficiency, websites can significantly enhance FID scores. Identifying and addressing resource-intensive processes that impact FID is essential, as even seemingly insignificant elements can accumulate and cause delays.

Moreover, focusing on FID optimization aligns with the broader goal of improving website performance. A well-optimized website delivers a superior user experience and positively impacts SEO efforts. Websites that load swiftly and respond promptly to user input create a positive feedback loop, enhancing engagement, lowering bounce rates, and improving search rankings.

The significance of First Input Delay in user experience cannot be overstated. A quick and seamless response to user input is fundamental in retaining users, improving engagement, and enhancing overall website performance. Prioritizing FID optimization not only elevates user satisfaction but also contributes to improved search rankings and organic traffic.

Step-by-Step Procedure: The Significance of First Input Delay in User Experience

  1. Introduction to FID: Define what First Input Delay (FID) is and its importance in user experience.
  2. Measurement of FID: Explain how FID is measured and its impact on user interactions.
  3. User Perception: Discuss how FID influences user perception of website responsiveness.
  4. Impact on Engagement: Describe the correlation between low FID and higher user engagement.
  5. Search Engine Ranking: Explain how Google incorporates FID into its ranking algorithm.
  6. FID and SEO: Discuss the relationship between FID optimization and improved search rankings.
  7. Optimizing JavaScript: Provide insights into how heavy JavaScript execution affects FID.
  8. Reducing JavaScript Load: Detail strategies for optimizing JavaScript code to improve FID.
  9. Resource-Intensive Processes: Identify elements contributing to delayed responses and how to mitigate them.
  10. Holistic Website Performance: Highlight the broader benefits of FID optimization on overall website performance.
  11. User Experience Impact: Discuss the direct connection between FID optimization and enhanced user experience.
  12. Bounce Rate Reduction: Explain how FID optimization leads to lower bounce rates and higher engagement.
  13. Positive Feedback Loop: Illustrate how FID optimization fosters a positive user satisfaction and interaction cycle.
  14. Strategic Importance: Emphasize the strategic significance of FID optimization in digital marketing efforts.
  15. Real-world Examples: Provide case studies demonstrating the impact of FID optimization on user engagement and search rankings.
  16. Tools and Resources: List tools and resources available for measuring and improving FID.
  17. JavaScript Optimization Tools: Recommend tools for optimizing JavaScript execution to enhance FID.
  18. Performance Audits: Guide readers on how to conduct a Lighthouse performance audit for FID insights.
  19. Continuous Improvement: Stress the importance of ongoing monitoring and improvement of FID.
  20. Conclusion: Summarize the importance of FID optimization in delivering exceptional user experiences and driving SEO success.

Bruce Clay is founder and president of Bruce Clay Inc., a global digital marketing firm providing search engine optimization, pay-per-click, social media marketing, SEO-friendly web architecture, and SEO tools and education. Connect with him on LinkedIn or through the BruceClay.com website.

See Bruce's author page for links to connect on social media.

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17 Replies to “Core Web Vitals: First Input Delay – What It Is and How to Improve It for SEO”

How are Australian websites supposed to receive reliable readings from Google PageInsight Score, which is tested from American servers but does not allow for location selection?

Robert Stefanski

Hi business,

Thanks for your question! If a website is hosted in Australia, there isn’t a way to get PageSpeed Insights to behave as if it was also in Australia. We suggest using Lighthouse to do Lab Data tests and make sure the site is fast. You can also use GTMetrix, which has an option to test from Sydney, Australia.

Keep in mind that Google uses Field data when assessing the site for ranking, not the Lab Data which Google PageSpeed Insights provides. Google PageSpeed Insights is meant only as a diagnostic tool — it does not provide Google Search with data to help rank a website.

Field data will be based on reports from the real-life users of the site. This data is available in Chrome User Experience (CrUX) reports as well as in Google Search Console (GSC). So, as long as the majority of users are also in Australia, then the CWV metrics Google uses should be what you expect.

Hope this helps!

Fantastic article! I totally agree that a mobile-friendly page is vital for a business to succeed. It is also equally as important to make sure your page is AMP’d up search engines can prioritize your page on Mobile.

Andi Duferense

Interesting. I just ran a Google Page Speed test on https://blog.google and they get a 45 score in mobile and 77 on desktop. #irony

Thank you for such a wonderful write up.

Amazing this really helped me

I enjoyed reading this blog very much. It was a pleasure to read. It is true that core website vitals are very significant to boosting the rankings. It is not taken seriously by many SEO experts. Ranking factors are important, but this is the biggest one.

Great article! This helped me to improve my SEO

It’s hard to come by experienced people in this particular topic, but you sound like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

It was a very comprehensive blog. I enjoyed reading it. And yes core web vitals issues are very signifact to boost the rankings. Many seo experts don’t take it seriously. But it is the biggest ranking factor.

Code Optimization is an important part of on-page SEO.

interesting article, I think I need to increase the performance of my website

What is the difference between fid and complete page load time.

These are good articles – helpful – thank you :-) *we are beginning to focus more intently on these core web vital stats now :-)

Google PageInsight Score is tested from American servers, how are Australian websites suppose to receive accurate readings when they don’t allow for location selection?

Paula Allen

Daniel: I asked our in-house expert on technical matters, and here’s his answer regarding an Australian website.

You’re right; PageSpeed Insights probably won’t give you the most accurate data. But, the Core Web Vitals are based on more than one run of that report; they are based on thousands of impressions of “field data” that is aggregated into the Chrome User Experience Report, or CrUX. That data is available from Google via BigQuery; there’s a handy write-up on how to create a Data Studio Dashboard from that data if you want a report on it: https://web.dev/chrome-ux-report-data-studio-dashboard/.

Because that data is only updated monthly, it won’t show you improvements to your site as you are making them or testing them. In that case, I would either run the Lighthouse report inside of the Chrome Dev Tools, or I would run the the web vitals package directly on your site and log the stats to the JavaScript Console or another place. You don’t even need to download and install it; you can run it from a CDN and print the values to the console: https://github.com/GoogleChrome/web-vitals/#load-web-vitals-from-a-cdn. Lighthouse may also be using some data from a US server, but I believe most of it comes from your browser.

Interesting. I just ran a Page Speed test on https://blog.google and they get a 45 score in mobile and 77 on desktop. #irony

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